CO2 Emissions and Extreme Poverty
An important link between fossil fuel use and human prosperity is noted in the image below, which depicts per capita countrywide CO2 emissions and the respective percent of each country's population living in extreme poverty, defined as those living on less than $1.90 per day.

The key observation of this graph is that higher CO2 emissions are associated with lower levels of extreme poverty. Nations enjoying the lowest percentages of their citizens living in extreme poverty are those that use the highest amounts of fossil energy. Consequently, it can confidently be concluded that abundant access to energy is an essential component to improving a nation's living standards and alleviating its poverty.

Figure 1. Per capita CO2 emissions vs the share of each country's population living in extreme poverty.